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Changing Englishes: An Online Course for Teachers

This course was originally written by Christopher J Hall with Rachel Wicaksono in 2013, and fully updated and revised in 2019. The original version was supported by a British Council ELT Research Partnership award and a grant from the York St John Business School.

The course is an output from the ELT Research Partnership award scheme funded by the British Council to promote innovation in English language teaching research. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the British Council.

Please reference this work as follows:
Hall, C. J. and Wicaksono, R. (2020). Changing Englishes: An online course for teachers (v.02.1). Online. Available at www.changingenglishes.online

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. You are free to use all material with appropriate attribution.

This website was developed by Melissa Forfitt

Alexandra Ruhl ran the course trial.


If you’re interested in pursuing the ideas introduced in this course at postgraduate level, York St John University offers the following programmes:

York St John University is located in the centre of the historic city of York in the north of England, midway between London and Edinburgh.

York Shambles


We are grateful to the following people who have contributed to the development of this course in different ways—with their time, know-how, ideas, materials, and/or feedback.

Special thanks to:

● Khawla Badwan (and Abeer, Ayah, Nida, and Rana)
● Jeremy Cooper
● Melissa Forfitt
● Harrison Hoggarth
● Tracey Milnes
● Judith Mader
● Alexandra Ruhl

Thanks also to:

● Leigh Clark
● Kaspar Forrest
● Juan Galindo
● Shu Liu
● Yuan Qian
● Adrian Simmons
● Bonny Xu
● Yang Xu
● Dasha Zhurauskaya
● ...and to all our MA Applied Linguistics students who have used this course as part of their Master’s programme

We are particularly grateful to the following teachers who gave us helpful feedback on the piloting of v.02:

● Ioana Catalina Anuta
● Rosie Bloy
● Ian Bolger
● Dailyn Brown
● Coralie Clerc
● Philip Cozens
● Tanja Debevc
● Alice Gruber
● Mehdi Kardan
● Omid Karami
● Sandra Kozorog
● Daniel Pun
● Chris Richards
● Gulnar Ussenova
● Aigerim Urazbekova
● Anna-Janina Wittan
● Cristiana Ziraldo

How to adapt this course for a teacher development programme or workshop

If you are a teacher trainer, you could consider using Changing Englishes as part of a teacher development programme, or one-off workshop, for teachers in your school, city or region. The course is published under a Creative Commons licence (see above), which means that you are free to use, and adapt, its contents to suit the needs of your trainees. There are a number of ways in which you could adapt the content for a teacher development programme. Here are three suggestions:

    1. Blended learning: five weekly one-hour face-to face sessions plus online independent study
    Your trainees work through the online materials for the Unit during the week. You arrange to meet face-to-face for an hour to discuss the ‘Reflect and Discuss’ questions at the end of every Unit/week. Working in groups, your trainees draft a written response, which they submit to the Discussion Board. As long as everyone in the group includes their name with their submission, they will all be counted as working towards fulfilling the requirements for a certificate (see above).

    2. Online learning: five months to work through the course, with online moderation
    Your trainees work through the online materials for each Unit over the course of a month. You set a deadline for the Discussion Board contribution (see above) and monitor their participation. At the end of each month, after every trainee has submitted their answers to the ‘Reflect and Discuss’ questions, you send out a summary of their contributions, with additional comments/feedback of your own. You could split the task of moderating by requiring one trainee to write the summary of the Discussion Boardcontributions and share it with the rest of the group. You could then share your additional comments/feedback with your trainees.

    3. Face to face learning: for when your trainees have no/limited internet access
    Meet your trainees regularly, face to face. Use the text that is labelled as Concept as the basis for a lecture and ask your trainees to take notes while you speak. If you have access to the sources we list on the References list and Resources page, you could add to the points that we make in our text. If you have access to a projector, you could create some PowerPoint slides to highlight the main points and display any images. If you have access to a photocopier, you could also copy and paste the text in the sections labelled as Concept, and print handouts to accompany your lecture. To make your lectures interactive, you could ask your trainees to do the Activities in groups and then feedback their findings to the class. You could then cross-check your trainees’ feedback with the content in our Feedback sections.

If you are thinking about adapting the content for a one-off face to face workshop, here are three, related, suggestions:

    4. Choose one (or more) Concepts from any of the Units and one related Activity. Consider whether to begin with a mini-lecture using the text in the Concept section, followed by the Activity and Feedback, or whether the reverse order might work better for your trainees. You could end with a relevant ‘Reflect and Discuss’ question as a group discussion, followed by more feedback.

    5. In addition to the above, you could use any of the images that occur in the Unit to set the scene for the Concept. Begin by showing your trainees the image(s) and asking them to speculate on the main points that might be covered in the workshop. You could set a pre-listening task, asking your trainees to listen to your mini-lecture and then feedback to the group on which of the points were, or weren’t covered.

    6. Instead of a mini-lecture, you could create handouts by copying and pasting the text in the Concept section and ask your trainees to read (and feedback on which of their predicted points were, or weren’t, covered in the text). If you are creating handouts, you could divide the information in the Concept section into a number of different handouts, ask your trainees to share the information (without showing each other their handouts) and check which of their predicted points are covered.

If you decide to use Changing Englishes as part of a teacher development programme or one-off workshop, we would be very happy to hear how you have adapted our materials. Please share your ideas on our Discussion Board.


You can let us know what you think about the design of this course by emailing Chris Hall.

We look forward to hearing from you!