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    • #2351
      admin adminadmin

      – Inner Circle Varieties of English:

      The more I reflect on the highly numerous varieties of English in the Inner Circle alone, the more illogical it feels to teach one variety (what is considered Standard US or UK English). What even is American English? Learners coming to study English in the US expect to be taught American English and American pronunciation, but how can we define these and place them in one neat box? Across the US alone there are multitudes of varieties and accents, not even counting “non-native” speaker varieties and accents, of which there is an abundance in the United States. So, yes, I believe we should be exposing learners to different varieties and these should be acknowledged.
      I used to have flatmate whose accent was very similar to Bernadette’s and who, on many occasions, I had a very hard time understating and had to embarrassingly ask her to repeat things a few times. She was speaking English, I was an English teacher, so what was the issue? Well, I had never been exposed to her variety before. Maybe it’s difficult to expose everyone to every variety, but certainly there are major ones like Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Australian, Indian, Asian varieties, Spanish varieties etc. that ELT textbooks could easily incorporate?

      – British English

      What struck me from the former PM’s address was the idea that English belonged exclusively to the British Isles and that they were generously offering to loan some of it to India. This seems to promote the idea of linguistic imperialism even more so when one considers that Indian English IS already a variety of English.

      – Standard English in ELF usage

      As a teacher, I don;t think I have ever heard my international students communicate with each other in “Standard” English, so I think it is not important, because they negotiate meaning and are able to communicate effectively using their idiolets to form ELF.
      On that note, a friend and fellow English teacher told me once that American English was the real lingua franca. What are your thoughts on this view?

      To view past replies go to: https://changingenglishes.proboards.com/thread/14/unit-2-reflection

      • This topic was modified 3 years ago by admin adminadmin.
    • #3267
      Sahar AmerSahar Amer

      My students use English as a means of communication with their teachers and admins as most of them are foreigners.

      • #5633

        So this means that the accuracy of their grammar is not what should be emphasised, rather intelligibility.

    • #3272

      Many subjects are taught in English in universities That’s why English is considered one of the most popular languages all over the world . Students try hard to master English as a second language . Learners of English attempt to learn how to speak English perfectly
      . They learn the difference between American and English pronunciation .

      • #6694
        Anh NguyenAnh Nguyen

        Besides being informed about the differences between American and British English pronunciation, students should also be informed about other varieties of English that they are likely to encounter in real life situations. Being aware of other “non-standard” english helps to equip student to communicate in ELF contexts.

    • #3415

      Standard English is the variety of English that has undergone substantial regularisation and is associated with formal schooling , language assessment and official print publications .
      I do believe that standard English should be given due care for exams and professional career development.
      In Egypt , the majority of schools promote the idea of standard English to help leaners of English master the target language.
      Bernadette English pays attention to help parents develop themselves to keep up to date with the challenges of the 21 century.
      Regarding the former PM,s address , he has made it clear that English belonged to the British isles and they were offering to loan some of it to the Indian. It seems clear that has prompted to the linguistic imperialism. As India has plurality linguistic.
      In Egypt , leaners of English are taught how much use the English language to communicate with others all over the world.

      • #5968
        Olga KravetsOlga Kravets

        Speaking about the difference between British and American English. I should admit that some of the students I teach find it enjoyable to switch to one or another variety of English.

    • #3468

      Expanding Circle
      I am from Thailand, myL2 is English, I learn English for communicate so the word Standard of English is so far for me and the lesson in class is mainly develop 4 skilles(speaking, listening, writing and reading) so teacher rarly to talk about standard of English in class. I met many Asian students and we use English as a Lingua Franca and we understand eachother well. Ohnestly my first piority to learn English is communicate then standard English may come to the last one.
      I think many asian students the probably not aware of standard of English, their goal may be pay attention on how to use English in effective way.

    • #3727

      My students use English as a vital way of communication with their teachers and admins as most of them are foreigners.

      • #5969
        Olga KravetsOlga Kravets

        Using English as lingua franca is a great opportunity to communicate with the representatives of other nationalities.

    • #3739

      In Egypt , the majority of schools promote the idea of standard English to help leaners of English master the target language.
      Bernadette English pays attention to help parents develop themselves to keep up to date with the challenges of the 21 century.
      Regarding the former PM,s address , he has made it clear that English belonged to the British isles and they were offering to loan some of it to the Indian. It seems clear that has prompted to the linguistic imperialism. As India has plurality linguistic.

    • #4087

      As a language teacher, I believe it is important to acknowledge that every student matters in terms of learning the English language. It might feel burdensome sometimes, but as long as we can impart some knowledge and they were able to communicate well whether it is in monolithic or plurilithic perspective. What matters most is that we did contribute.

      If students fail to adhere to such grammatical rules or mispronounced words (actually, we really have to be informed massively with dialects and accents), we must go beyond those. As long as they can communicate and they were understood completely, they are doing fine.

      I am not saying that teachers must not pay attention to their students’ mistakes, I still believe that technicalities must still be followed especially in the workplaces, academe and business affairs.

    • #4213

      Interference should be avoided to a certain extent so that students are encouraged to use the target language but this has to be done discreetfully by a teacher and also, when translanguaing takes place it produces rich diversity accommodating diverse cultures and religions into the classroom.
      This also welcomes the idea of Angelica’s , telling that every learner in a classroom is important and should be made important too.

    • #4221

      Teaching standard English is important for English test, but for communication I consider non standard English. To make friend, especially by social media, the students don’t need to use standard English. What the most important for me is to develop students’ confidence to use English and develop the sense of belonging of English. This is very important, if the students have no sense of belonging , then they will be burdened usng English for communication. That’s why I am not agree with the regulation or policy that consider English as an exclusive language for certain speakers.

    • #4533
      Dauda PikawiDauda Pikawi

      Standard English is more obtained in all circles to be in written form. The spoken English seems to elude the three circles.

    • #4718

      whether translanguaging is used in your part of the world and why/how you might use it in class.

      Translanguaging concept is existence in the context where English Lingua Franca (ELF) is established. For instance, In Sri Lanka, Sinhala and Tamil are mother tongue languages and English language is the Lingua franca language. When Sinhala and Tamil speakers need to communicate each other, the language has become a barrier at that time English language uses to neglect that barrier and establish a strong communication between the communities. In the ESL classroom, when students learn English language, sometimes teachers find it difficult to make students understand certain English language terms, consequently, teachers tend to take references from the mother tongue language, Sinhala or Tamil. For instances, Prepositions as “Nipatha padha” Subject as “Ukthaya”, Verb as “Kriyawa”, object as “Anukthaya” and etc. On the contrary, current ESL practitioners instruct English teachers to not to code switching or code mixing in between the L1 and L2 languages because they believe it might make a negative impact on students proficiency in English language (L2 language). Simultaneously, it is unstoppable in the Outer Circle country like Sri Lanka, therefore, there is an existence of Standard Sri Lankan English variety.

    • #4751

      Not only do I teach in a school where there is no “Standard English” (I mean, even amongst the instructors as we all come from different parts of North America and we have our own dialects), but I also live in a city where 40% of our population are non-native speakers of English. In terms of accent and accuracy, I can teach all of my students a “Standard English”, but I often try to build other standards into my lesson, and have my students spend time thinking about/studying other forms of English as well.

      It may take some time away from studying grammar, but it’s always well worth the time!

    • #5199

      The use of ‘Standard English’ in the Korean classroom – Many students learn English for standardized tests. There is a need to focus on standard English to an extent. Students need high scores to get jobs, etc.

      In the real world translanguaging is the norm. I make a point of this in our conversation classes. We need to negotiate meaning as we won’t always have the the exact word we want to use when speaking another language. However, in Korea (like many other places I imagine) there is linguistic insecurity. Most individuals are striving to achieve the ‘Standard English’ they encounter in the common learning materials.

      • #5519
        Saul SantosSaul Santos

        I totally agree. We often have to get a balance between owr own beliefs and the way we understand language and language, language teaching and language testing, and the imposed views from the educationsl system, editorial companies, etc. In the past, I used to be more concerned about teaching ‘standard’ English, developing ‘accuracy’ in my students. It has been helpful to use the notion of linguistic repertoirs and concetrating me in helping my students to develop negotiation skills, to constantly be observing the language being used around them, and noticing how the others language in given contexts. This way they realize the ‘standard’ english is not the norm, and that sometimes it is more appropriate to use non-standard varieties…

    • #5228

      My students just use English in the classroom, because outdoor they do not have people to speak English and their partners do not want to practice. It is the problem to have a good results at the end of the course.

    • #5247

      Learning the language varieties can be fun because it helps you understand how rich the language is.

    • #5275

      I, myself think that the place of Standard English has been being overtaken by Modern RP in recent years. And Estuary English is also a contender.

    • #5282

      The lingua franca of the 21st century

    • #5288

      First, if I consider using English at work for International commercial negotiations and transactions with other nations that they have their own varieties of using the English language, surprisingly they come to this point of being intelligible and making efforts to share meaning which is the purpose of communications among the world’s nations. Secondly, considering the fact that using translanguaging in teaching and learning contexts will inspire everyone to participate in pedagogical practices in which they build trust, respect, and accept everyone’s language styles and register that help them to grow personally and professionally in different situations and positions by utmost mutual understanding. Finally, the social networking sites are not promoting just Standard English among the speakers of this language since they are free to share one’s preference of style in the community. Last but not least, the materials, resources, apps, textbooks, teacher training programs, institutions, conferences, and webinars could possibly enhance this awareness that there are Englishes that is seen as plurilithic perspective of languages that they have a lot in common with many advantages plus the distinguishing features like grammar, word choices and prosodic features that can maximize and nurture one’s knowledge and wisdom. Possibly everyone who is willing to learn efficiently and effectively can educate themselves and find people who share the same taste by providing each other broader circles in which they form galaxies.

    • #5289

      A lot of my students use the ´´STANDARD ENGLISH to have a conversation with anyone of other country. They say that is easier because they practice what the learned at school, e.x: the rules, grammar etc.

    • #5297

      I highly value dialects and accents over “standard” English. They have got historical roots.

    • #5323

      I love accents and dialect – geekily.
      I myself fancy a Northern British accent compared to a Standard one.
      Just as I fancy a Southern USA accent to a Standard one.
      For learners, as a first step, a Standard (I do NOT believe in the word) one is a very viable step to take but teacher MUST make them understand that even if one resides in London, might come across a fella who doesn’t Adam and Eve what they rabbit about. Y’mean? 😉

    • #5352

      Throughout its history, English has undergone gradual and substantial changes in pronunciation, orthography, grammar, vocabulary, and pragmatics (language in use) resulting that speakers of Modern English would have difficulty understanding Middle English (Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales are very challenging to read) and find Old English completely unintelligible (Beowulf is like reading in a different language). Nevertheless, the belief in the existence of a ‘standard English or ideal language’ is still deeply rooted in history and people’s minds. Unfortunately, people still have different attitudes to language change and frequently portray this process in a negative way because it is compared to language degeneration. As a result, the notion of ‘correct or acceptable’ and ‘incorrect or unacceptable’ established a perception that some languages, varieties, and their speakers are highly valued within a culture, while others are stigmatized as non-standard. It is important to bear in mind that language is always changing. Language does not live in a vacuum.

    • #5375

      Considering US English or UK English as a lingual franca portray more of linguistic imperialism than it does in determining a form of English however, in terms of evaluation and standardized testing, it is important to focus on varieties that are well documented and regularized variety. This will help ensure equality amongst learners from diverse background.

      • #7474

        I also agree. The idea of elevating US or UK English to a lingua franca status can inadvertently perpetuate linguistic imperialism, overshadowing other equally valid forms of English. However, when it comes to evaluation and standardized testing, prioritizing well-documented and regularized varieties is essential. This approach fosters fairness among learners from diverse linguistic backgrounds, as it provides a consistent benchmark for assessment.

    • #5399

      how different Bernadette and Cormack’s English (and other Inner Circle Englishes you may have heard) is from the variety you teach and/or model;

      Whilst there certainly are various linguistic differences between Bernadette and Cormack’s English, I don’t consider them so impeding that they would be mutually unintelligible. With GB English as my L1, I’ve lived outwith the UK for nearly 30 years and, on occasion, I have to initially concentrate when I listen to a regional accent in the UK. Whilst I agree that using the NS as ‘the model’ and standard is no longer relevant to language learners, in the interest in making our Ss’ linguistic lives manageable, a limited galaxy/continent of English would seem to be a realistic target. Many of my Ss already feel overwhelmed listening to GB English, not to mention throwing into the mix many of the international varieties. The latter can be developed as and when the need arises.

    • #5444

      Most international students in my academic environment use ELF however when they speak to native speakers of English they endeavour to use a different English again.
      What can I say but it is very fascinating and yes I agree the new lingua franca of the 21st Century – you could say the Latin of today.

      • #5580

        You’re right: I’ve noticed the same thing in my students and in all the international environments I’ve happened to live in.

    • #5461

      I do believe that English has become a global language to the extent that it no longer belongs to inner-circle countries. I mean all who people who speak the language can claim ownership of English. This should have pedagogical implications for English language teaching, and learners should be introduced to the sociolinguistic reality of English as a global language that is spoken in different varieties and accents. As for the concept ‘translanguaging’, I do believe that the range of languages spoken by learners should be made use of when it comes to English spoken in multilingual contexts.

    • #5472
      Julio TorresJulio Torres

      Anyone who is in a multilingual context and uses English to communicate can claim ownership of English. They are using English as an International Language

    • #5483

      Inside the classroom students are taught and use Standard English most of the times, for either they prepare to sit exams, such as IELTS or they are interested in furthering their studies, so they need to have a good command of Academic English. When they communicate outside the classroom, Standard English is of no use to them anymore. They interact with people having different L1s or even with native English speakers in situations where everyone brings in their idiolects. As long as the communication is effective and the message conveyed is intelligible, comprehensible and interpretable, Standard English can be put aside and English becomes a Lingua Franca.

    • #5518
      Saul SantosSaul Santos

      From the different topics of reflection, I think I will take ‘translangaging’. In the context where I teach, A state university with multicultural/multilingual classrooms (up to 9 indigenopus languages and Spanish, the language of instruction), the background languages of the students have never been considered. My school hold a monolithic view of language and assumes that it is the students’ responsibility to develop the academic skills (including linguistic skills) required to succeed. I find the notion of ‘translanguaging’ very helpful, as a pedagogical strategy, to provide a kind of scafold in the process of expanding linguistic repertoirs of my indigenous students, at least at an interaftional, productive level. I can’t see, however, how this notion can help me (there surely must be ways, but I have to find them) deal with the comprehension level when it comes to reading: literature we use in classes is written either in English or Spanish, and some of the languages in question have not develop a written system. An interesting path to look into…

    • #5579

      I agree that students (and speakers in general) don’t usually communicate in what we would term “Standard English”, so I make them aware of different varieties. However, for academica purposes I also follow coursebooks and the language they teach. As for translanguaging, I always try to exploit different L1s, whenever I have multilingual classes. When I have Ss with the same L1, which is often the case, I only use it for contrastive reasons and to better explain some grammar points.

    • #5597

      Bernadette and Cormack’s English
      Speaking with accents means that Bernadette and Cormack make use of pronunciation techniques such as elision, assimilation, combined with deviations from the ordinary grammar of Standard English and distinct vocabulary. I would say that all distinct accents or dialects do this. The priority of a localised language is fluency and communication, however, once it becomes standardised for exams the priority becomes accuracy. In the EFL classroom, there is one correct way to pronounce or construct sentences in Standard English and this means that the diversity of language suffers, as well as the fluency of the learners. The most damaging element is the snobbery with which many look at localised versions with. This needs to change as deviations from Standard English are in the vast majority when it comes to English language users.

      Prime Minister Brown
      Due to the fact that the English language originated in the UK it seems that Prime Minister Brown has no second thoughts about taking ownership of it. Certainly, I have encountered similar ideas from other people in the UK. However, I think that the campaign acts as almost an extension of the past with the desire to have a British methodology throughout the globe, there is definitely a view that the British variation is the ‘best’ variation of the language. Whilst the sentiments for increasing English proficiency are admirable, it seems like it may be an attempt to monetise English in fast developing economies and exploit its role as a lingua franca. In doing this, Brown wants to position himself and the UK as a world leader again.

    • #5699

      It is a shame that policymakers and HODs lament employing translanguaging as an educational tool in language classrooms. I have worked in several institutions and none of them approved of translanguaging in the class. According to them, ‘All communication must be in English to have students exposed to the target language’. I know that research says that in short language classrooms, language learners must be exposed to the target language as much as possible. However, using L1 to explain critical point will mitigate the possibility of having some students feeling outcasted or lost. Also, according to contrastive analysis, L2 grammatical conventions that are not present in L1’s language MUST be explicitly explained to students as they lack cognitive context. I rememebr reading some research on having such conventions TRANSLATED INTO L1 for efficient and effective teaching. Thus, some teachers face political problems when trying to bring theory to practice in language classrooms.

    • #5716

      I’ve lived in London for 6 years now, I would be interested to compare it’s language statistics as it’s own country when considering inner/outer circles

    • #5946

      Translanguaging is an activity which can be frequently found in monolingual classroom,for example, teachers using first language to explain, students discussing in their mother tongue. However, in many places, this act is considered as inappropriate in a language classroom as it hinders students from developing their language skills, particularly Speaking skill. Instead, English-only policy is more favoured in class.
      However, the question should be raised as to whether translanguaging is not good for students or it actually allows students to make use of their language repertoire to better engaged in an English class?

    • #5970
      Olga KravetsOlga Kravets

      As for translanguaging, it is commonly used in the classroom, though, I personally find that it should not be overused and the priority should be given to English speaking.

    • #6746

      Reflection Unit 2: Just like lots of aspects of humanity, language has been through continuous changes. It is something natural and does not just happens with one particular language. For instance, ‘El cantar del mío Cid’, which is a famous Spanish epic poem, was written in old Spanish. As you will see in the following fragment, it was a quite different language in contrast to today’s modern Spanish.

      Old Spanish: En Beleem apareçist, commo fue tu veluntad,
      Pastores te glorificaron, oviéronte a laudare,
      Tres reyes de Arabia te vinieron adorar,
      Melchior e Gaspar e Baltasar, oro e tus e mirra
      Te ofreçieron, commo fue tu veluntad.

      Modern Spanish: En Belén apareciste, como fue tu voluntad,
      Pastores te glorificaron, te tuvieron que loar,
      Tres reyes de Arabia te vinieron a adorar,
      Melchor y Gaspar y Baltasar, oro e incienso y mirra
      Te ofrecieron, como fue tu voluntad.

      I think as users of a language, it is important to develop our abilities in a way that allows us to succeed in communication in all the possible scenarios we may take part. Therefore, we should acknowledge dynamism in language, and try to embrace diversity instead of staying in a rigid position.

    • #7420

      Students in Vietnam have become familiar with the English they learned in the coursebook, so they find it hard to understand Standard English in form of newspaper or public service announcements.

    • #7439
      Quan Duong HongQuan Duong

      Translanguaging is the act performed by bilinguals of accessing different linguistic features or various modes of what are described as autonomous languages, in order to maximize communicative potential. Translanguaging is about communication, not about language itself. The combination of different languages can enhance learners’ communication with the hope of assisting them to master their language profiency.

    • #7462

      These Inner Circle Englishes, spoken in countries like the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, exhibit native speaker norms, accents, and cultural nuances distinct from the standardized version I emphasize. The variations encompass vocabulary choices, pronunciation, idiomatic expressions, and even syntactical patterns. Recognizing these differences is crucial in acknowledging the rich linguistic diversity within English. While my focus remains on a neutral and widely comprehensible form, understanding and appreciating the unique flavors of Inner Circle Englishes enriches our understanding of global language dynamics.

    • #7629
      Ellie parkinEllie parkin

      standard english may be something others strive for but i dont think it should be the focus of language learning, the focus should be on being able to communcate something effectively even if its not perfect

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