Unit 1: Defining English


Curzon, A. (2014). Fixing English. Prescriptivism and language history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

A very engaging book on prescriptivist approaches to English, taking seriously the role that ‘regulatory’ forces have played, and continue to play, in the shaping of (how people conceptualise) English. 

Graddol, D., Leith, D., Swann, J., Rhys, M. and Gillen, J. (eds) (2007). Changing English. London: Routledge.

  • This Open University textbook covers the history and contemporary diversity of English in an accessible style, addressing key debates about the nature and status of the language.

Hall, C. J. and Wicaksono, R. (eds) (2020). Ontologies of English. Conceptualising the language for learning, teaching, and assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • A collection of papers examining how English is conceptualised in both L1 and L2 educational contexts. The audience is scholars in applied linguistics, so some of the discussion can be quite technical, but many of the issues raised in this course are put under the microscope there, in case you want to follow them up. 

Hall, C. J. (2005). An introduction to language and linguistics. Breaking the language spell. London and New York: Continuum.

  • In this introductory text one of us presents the ‘invisible’ nature of human language using the metaphor of a spell: most language use is unconscious and this has a series of negative effects on the way we conceptualise language, but linguistics can help us break the spell and become more aware of what language is and how it operates at both cognitive and social levels.

Makoni, S. and Pennycook, A. (eds) (2007). Disinventing and reconstituting languages. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

  • The original collection of papers arguing for a ‘plurilithic’ view of English. This a very scholarly work, and many readers will find it very hard to read. Some of the arguments are unnecessarily divisive too, and are likely to alienate some readers (as argued in Hall, 2013). But some will find it a breath of fresh air, as we did. It’s certainly a ground-breaking collection, which has been very helpful to the authors of this course, even if we don’t agree with everything in it.

Patel, M., Solly, M. and Copeland, S. (2022). The future of English: Global perspectives. London: British Council. [Available online via this website.]

  • This British Council report follows up on the trends in global Englishes and global ELT identified by David Graddol (2006) with new research from expert panels around the world.


Do you speak American?

  • A website hosted by the USA’s Public Broadcasting Service, with a lot of interesting material on prescriptivism/descriptivism (discussed in Unit 3), and attitudes to ‘correctness’ and ‘Standard (American) English’. A particularly fun interactive exercise for those familiar with US dialects is the Mapping Attitudes page.

English Corpora

  • Access to several very large corpora of (mostly British and American) English, including the British National Corpus used to construct the concordance illustrating the ambiguity of the word rule in section 1.3. The site is maintained by Mark Davies.

How to speak correct English

  • Transcript of a humorous speech recorded in 1927 by George Bernard Shaw, the author of Pygmalion, from which My Fair Lady was adapted. His advice for ‘foreigners’ reflects the kinds of monolithic beliefs questioned in Unit 1.

Speak good English

  • Website of the Singapore Government’s campaign to persuade its citizens to use ‘Standard’ English instead of the local variety. A paradigm case of monolithic thinking to contrast with the ideas presented in this course.

British accents and dialects

  • British Library site with information on accent and dialect variation in the UK. We use samples from this site in Unit 2.

Unit 2: Using English


García, O. and Li Wei (2014). Translanguaging: language, bilingualism and education. London: Palgrave.

  • A brief but rich and readable introductory text on translanguaging in education. It includes some useful ideas about how teachers can incorporate translanguaging into their classrooms, even if they do not share their students’ first language(s).

Jenkins, J., Baker, W. and Dewey, M. (eds). (2018). Routledge handbook of English as a Lingua Franca. London: Routledge.

  • A scholarly survey of ELF in 47 chapters, covering lots of issues relevant to this course. 

Kachru, Y. and Smith, L. E. (eds) (2008). Cultures, contexts, and World Englishes. London: Routledge.

  • An introduction to the study of varieties of World Englishes, with an emphasis on cultural contexts and sociolinguistic methods. Includes important discussion of intelligibility in interaction.

Kirkpatrick, A. (2021). The Routledge handbook of World Englishes (2nd edn). London: Routledge.

  • A comprehensive set of articles on World Englishes written by experts in the field.

Murata, K. and Jenkins, J. (eds) (2009). Global Englishes in Asian contexts. Current and future debates. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • A collection of papers on global English and ELF in Asia, including an important and quite readable paper by Alistair Pennycook on ‘Plurilithic Englishes’.

Saraceni, M. (2015). World Englishes: A Critical Analysis. London: Bloomsbury.

  • A lively, very readable, critical introduction to the World Englishes paradigm, which covers historical, ideological, and pedagogical issues. Saraceni takes issue with the monolithic thinking implicit in much World Englishes scholarship (which sometimes appears to portray English as a set of discrete varieties) and instead argues for rethinking English as (plurilithic) social practice.

Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • A major review of research on English as a Lingua Franca, providing a clear overview of the position of those who identify with the emerging ‘ELF studies’ community in applied linguists.


English as a Lingua Franca

  • BBC Radio 4 episode of the Word of Mouth programme on English as a Lingua Franca, from September 2011, including interviews with Jennifer Jenkins and Andy Kirkpatrick, as well as alternative viewpoints from Michael Swan and the assistant director of Cambridge ESOL.

Language Varieties

  • Resource website on ‘non-standard’ global varieties of English, by Jeff Siegel, a pidgin and creole expert at the University of New England.

Translanguaging Resources

World Englishes

  • Video on international varieties of English by Kyle Nuske and Tomoko Oda at Indiana University Pennsylvania. In it they interview international students from the Outer and Expanding circles about their English learning goals and experiences. It is used in a classroom activity described in Matsuda (2012): see resources for Unit 4. Full versions of the interviews are also online.

What is English as a Lingua Franca? An introduction to the field

  • Accessible online article by Alessia Cogo, a prominent ELF researcher, which provides a good overview of the phenomenon and (her) research on it.

Unit 3: Learning English


Cadierno, T. and Eskildsen, S. W. (eds) (2015). Usage-based perspectives on second language learning. Berlin: De Gruyter.

  • Unfortunately there are no book-length introductory accounts yet of the ‘usage-based’ approach to SLA that underpins much of the content of Unit 3 (although check out the following recommendation). This edited volume brings together chapters from some of the best-known researchers working in the area, so is worth a look for those interested in the scholarship behind the approach.

VanPatten, B. and Williams, J. (eds) (2015). Theories in second language acquisition. An introduction. London: Routledge. 

  • This accessible introduction to SLA theories contains two chapters which are particularly relevant to the content of Unit 3. Chapter 5 (by Nick Ellis and Stephanie Wulff) explains ‘usage-based’ approaches to SLA, and Chapter 8 (by Michael Ullman) explains the declarative/procedural model informing our section on automatisation and the neural underpinning of the distinction between rules as ‘regularities’ and ‘regulations’.

Hilpert, M. (2014). Construction Grammar and its application to English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

  • Although this textbook isn’t directly about learning English, it’s relevant to the approach we’ve taken in Unit 3 because it explains how the language can be characterised by a grammar of ‘constructions’: the ‘regularities’ in the speech and writing that users are exposed to. 

Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language. A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • This book is a seminal theoretical work providing a usage-based account of L1 development, but it won’t be very accessible for readers without a background in linguistics or cognitive psychology.

Tyler, A. E., Ortega, L., Uno, M. and Park, H. I. (eds) (2018). Usage-inspired L2 instruction: Researched pedagogy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • A collection of papers on approaches to teaching inspired by the usage-based approach to SLA. The editors’ introduction lists ‘five tenets that shape usage-inspired L2 instruction’.



  • The source of the data on Barbara and her mother, this online corpus also includes bilingual and second language data in a variety of languages. It is not an easy page to navigate, but the key links are ‘Database manuals’ in the right-hand column and ‘Database’ at the top of the central column.

Kurt Kohn at TESOL

  • Video of Kohn’s keynote talk at the 2012 TESOL Conference, entitled ‘My English’: Second Language Acquisition as Individual and Social Construction. Although he doesn’t mention the word plurilithic, Kohn’s message is entirely consistent with ours and indeed he makes many of the same arguments. He also takes the position further and deeper than we have done in this course.

Construction Grammar and its Application to English

  • This is the first of a series of videos made by Martin Hilpert to accompany his 2014 textbook, listed above. It’s accessible and informative.

Unit 4: Teaching English


Alsagoff, L., Mckay, S. L., Hu, G. and Renandya, W. A. (eds) (2012). Principles and practices for Teaching English as an International Language. London: Routledge.

  • One of two collections of papers from 2012 examining ‘principles and practices’ in teaching English as an International Language with (almost) the same name (the other is Matsuda’s: see below). This  one is slightly more principle-oriented, with persuasive argumentation regarding the need for change.

Bayyurt, Y. and Akcan, S. (eds) (2015). Current perspectives on pedagogy for English as a lingua franca. Berlin: De Gruyter.

  • A collection of papers addressing how to incorporate new understandings of ELF usage into English classrooms, teacher education programmes, and teaching materials, using examples mostly from Europe and East Asia. 

Bowles, H. and Cogo, A. (eds). (2015). International perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca: Pedagogical insights. London: Palgrave MacMillan.

  • The chapters in this book explore the relationship between English as a lingua franca and language teaching. They show how the pedagogy of intelligibility, culture and language awareness, as well as materials analysis and classroom management, can be viewed from an ELF perspective in school and university contexts.

Galloway, N. (2017). Global Englishes and change in English language teaching: Attitudes and impact. London: Routledge.

  • This book brings together research from the fields of Global Englishes and English language teaching, and provides practical suggestions for the implementation of a Global Englishes approach in the classroom. 

Kirkpatrick, A. (2007). World Englishes. Implications for international communication and English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • An accessible introduction to global variation in English and to major varieties, written with teaching implications in mind.

Marr, T. and English, F. (2019). Rethinking TESOL in diverse global settings. The language and the teacher in a time of change. London: Bloomsbury.

  • A robust discussion of the realities of contemporary TESOL and the consequent need for the profession to face the challenges presented by Global Englishes by becoming (and positioning themselves as) specialists, with expert knowledge (precisely the kind that this course engages you with, we would point out!).

Matsuda, A. (ed.) (2012). Principles and practices of Teaching English as an International Language. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

  • One of two collections of papers from 2012 examining ‘principles and practices’ in teaching English as an International Language with (almost) the same name (the other is Alsagoff et al.’s: see above). This is one is slightly more practice-oriented, with a chunky final chapter on actual classroom activities.

McKay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an International Language. Rethinking goals and approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • A short but invaluable textbook on the teaching of English for international communication.

Rose, H. and Galloway, N. (2019). Global Englishes for language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • This book motivates an approach to ELT the authors call Global Englishes for Language Teaching (GELT), using theory and empirical research. It has been written to be accessible to both researchers and practitioners.

Selvi, A. F. and Yazan, B. (eds) (2021) Language teacher education for Global Englishes: A practical resource book. London: Routledge.

An edited collection of articles on teaching methods, materials, assessment, and curriculum design for Global Englishes, written by scholars from around the world.Sharifian, F. (ed.) (2009). English as an International Language. Perspectives and pedagogical issues. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

  • A collection of inspiring and provocative papers, many of which highlight the injustice of the assumption that native speakers have a privileged status in matters concerning the learning, teaching and use of English.

Sifakis, N. C. and Tsantila, N. (eds) (2009). English as a lingua franca for EFL contexts. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

  • This book offers accounts of innovative and practical pedagogical practices and researchers’ insights from diverse geographical, cultural and institutional contexts. It aims to inform and inspire teachers to reconsider their practices and adopt new techniques, in order to meet their learners’ diverse communicative needs in international contexts.

Walker, R. (2010). Teaching the pronunciation of English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • This book, and audio CD, explores how English as a lingua franca may be relevant to teaching pronunciation. It draws on, and goes beyond, the idea of a Lingua Franca core and explores how adopting an ELF approach can benefit students.

Widdowson, H. G. (2003). Defining issues in English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • A statement of Henry Widdowson’s philosophy of English and the learning/teaching of English, which may not be explicitly ‘plurilithic’ in nature, but in many ways seems to anticipate the plurilithic position we present in this course, as we acknowledge in the Learning English unit.


English as a Lingua Franca Practices for Inclusive Multilingual Classrooms (ENRICH) Continuous Professional Development Course

  • This free-to-use online CPD course aims to help teachers of English to integrate English as a lingua franca (ELF) in multilingual classrooms. The course consists of 30 sections divided up into three main categories, ‘Using English’, ‘Teaching English’ and ‘Learning English’. Each section includes a video lecture, a range of reflective activities and some useful supplementary materials. Highly recommended!

Everything English Language Teaching!

  • This is the YouTube channel of Nicos Sifakis. The videos on the channel, In English and Greek, cover a wide variety of topics relevant to English language teachers around the world, including some 5-minute definitions of concepts relevant to this course.

British Council | Teaching English

  • There is a large collection of videos hosted on this channel, on a wide variety of topics. The English as a Lingua Franca series of videos (in 6 parts) by Katy Simpson and Laura Patsko are recordings of a seminar that explored practical ideas for teaching pronunciation and listening, based on their experience of multilingual classes in Dubai and London.

      Unit 5: Changing English

      Books, book chapters and journal articles

      Gardner, H. (2006). Changing minds: The art and science of changing our own and other peoples minds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

      • If you want to understand the practical psychology behind the process of changing people’s minds on tough issues like the resilient belief in monolithic English, then you might appreciate this book. It was written for business folk, psychologists and educators by the cognitive psychologist Howard Gardner (famous for his Multiple Intelligences theory).

      Hall, C. J., Smith, P. H., and Wicaksono, R. (forthcoming). Mapping Applied Linguistics. A Guide for Students and Practitioners (2nd edn). London: Routledge.

      • This is the third edition of a book we wrote with our colleague Patrick Smith from Texas State University, in which we survey different areas of applied linguistics and present our view of the field as a bottom-up, user-based, problem-oriented enterprise.

      Kiczkowiak, M. and Lowe R. J. (2018). Teaching English as a Lingua Franca: The journey from EFL to ELF. Teacher’s Book. Stuttgart: DELTA publishing.

      • This book aims to help teachers understand the concept of English as a Lingua Franca, operate as users of English as a global language, and (via a series of downloadable worksheets), provide opportunities to consider new approaches to ELT. Some of the worksheets, designed for pre- and in-service teacher education, would also be usable as classroom teaching materials.

      Ng, P. C. and Boucher-Yip, E. F. (eds) (2016). Teacher agency and policy response in English language teaching. London: Routledge.

      • A collection of papers addressing the issue of agency in teachers’ individual and collective responses to curriculum reform and other ELT policy issues, including the challenges of global mobility. Contributions draw on examples from several countries.

      Ricento, T. K. and Hornberger, N. H. (1996). Unpeeling the onion. Language planning and policy and the ELT professional. TESOL Quarterly, 30, 3, 401-427.

      • This is the introductory article for a special issue of the influential academic journal TESOL Quarterly from 1996, dedicated to the notion of English teaching as language policy and planning, a way of viewing the profession that we adopt and advocate in this unit.

      Meddegama, I. V. and Qian, Y. (2021). We were willing to try again and make it understandable for both parties”: Working across geographical borders to dispel language misconceptions. In Selvi, A. F. and Yazan, B. (eds) Language teacher education for Global Englishes: A practical resource book. London: Routledge.


      • This is a report of a study of a collaborative, online task undertaken by university students in China and in the UK that aimed to raise the students’ awareness of plurilithic ideas about English. The authors describe and evaluate the task in a way that means the study could easily be replicated by other teacher-researchers.



      • The National Association for Language Development in the Curriculum (NALDIC) is the UK’s national association for EAL. The Association “provides a professional forum for the teaching and learning of English as an additional language, supporting bilingualism, raising the achievement of ethnic minority learners, and promoting the development of research, policy and practice”.

      TESOL Blog

      • The international TESOL organization has a blog which now includes a series of “white papers, research briefs, and policy briefs” that could be a site for ‘changing Englishes’ as we describe the process in this unit.

      TESOL Advocacy and Policy Summit

      • This annual event provides teachers in the USA with the opportunity to “learn about U.S. federal education issues and advocate for policies that support English learners and the field of English language education”.

      Centre for Language and Social Justice Research at York St John

      • For an example of near-peer role modelling, see the videos we created for awareness-raising sessions in Germany and in China, using the Orientations to English Questionnaire in section 1.1. You are welcome to use these if you think the teachers in our videos might work as ‘near peers’ in your context, or as inspiration to make your own! 


      • The Elinet network aims to raise awareness of the globalisation of the English language and its impact on education (teaching English and other languages, teaching other subjects IN English and wider issues related to education, languages and internationalisation). The network currently focuses on two subject areas: Global Englishes, English Medium Instruction (EMI) and the internationalisation of higher education.

      Robin Walker on the pronunciation for ELF

      • Robin Walker, author of Teaching the Pronunciation of English as a Lingua Franca (OUP), talks about his webinar, ‘Pronunciation for International Intelligibility’.

      Teaching English as a lingua franca: The journey from EFL to ELF – downloadable activity sheets

      This book (Kiczkowiak and Lowe, 2019) aims to help teachers understand the concept of English as a Lingua Franca, help learners to operate as users of English as a global language, and provide opportunities to move towards a new approach to ELT. The downloadable worksheets can be printed out for use in teacher education.